Category Archives: Biography of Legends

The History of GOOGLE and it’s Owners…………

 

g must

 

 

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google hq

Google Headquarters located at Mountain View, California United States.

 larry page

 larry page 02

Larry Page (on top)

sergey

serdey 2

Sergey Brin

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google staff at U.S

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google staff

Wad up people, we gat to talk about a mighty company and its owners today, you ask what company?

The company is GOOGLE,

what really inspired my to post this historical event is the drastic successes of Google over the years, and even seeing them changing the logo suddenly this year.

And you know what?, Google owner(Larry page and Sergey Brin) has a car that drive itself, umm, you said it’s not possible? check this out!, read more about the self driving car here

google car

car that drive itself, owned by google boss….

Firstly, Google is founded by two American called Larry page and Sergey Brin, The following history is derived and sourced from google website itself, so this is what  Google has to say about themselves…………………….

1995-1997

1995

  • Larry Page and Sergey Brin meet at Stanford. Larry, 22, a U Michigan grad, is considering the school; Sergey, 21, is assigned to show him around.

1996

  • Larry and Sergey begin collaborating on a search engine called BackRub. BackRub operates on Stanford servers for more than a year—eventually taking up too much bandwidth.

1997

  • Google.com is registered as a domain on September 15. The name—a play on the word “googol,” a mathematical term for the number represented by the numeral 1 followed by 100 zeros—reflects Larry and Sergey’s mission to organize a seemingly infinite amount of information on the web.

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1998

April

August

  • Sun co-founder Andy Bechtolsheim writes a check for $100,000 to an entity that doesn’t exist yet—a company called Google Inc.
  • Before heading to the Burning Man festival in the Nevada desert, Larry and Sergey incorporate the iconic Man into the logoto keep people informed about where the Google crew would be for a few days—our first doodle.

September

  • On September 4, Google files for incorporation in California. Larry and Sergey open a bank account in the newly-established company’s name and deposit Andy Bechtolsheim’s check.
  • Google sets up workspace in Susan Wojcicki’s garage on Santa Margarita Ave., Menlo Park, Calif.
  • Larry and Sergey hire their first employee. Craig Silverstein is a fellow CS grad student at Stanford who works at Google for 10+ years before joining education startup Khan Academy.

December

  • “PC Magazine” reports that Google “has an uncanny knack for returning extremely relevant results” and recognizes us as the search engine of choice in the Top 100 Web Sites for 1998.

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1999

February

  • We outgrow our garage office and move to new digs at 165 University Avenue in Palo Alto with just eight employees.

April

  • Yoshka, our first “company” dog, comes to work with our senior vice president of operations, Urs Hölzle.

May

  • Omid Kordestani joins to run sales—employee #11. Ten years later, Omid steps down from his active role in the company, becoming a senior advisor.

June

  • Our first press release announces a $25 million round from Sequoia Capital and Kleiner Perkins; John Doerr and Michael Moritz join the board.

August

  • We move to our first Mountain View location: 2400 Bayshore. Mountain View is a few miles south of Stanford University, and north of the older towns of Silicon Valley: Sunnyvale, Santa Clara, San Jose.

November

  • We hire our first chef, Charlie Ayers (his previous claim to fame was catering for the Grateful Dead; he now owns a cafe in Palo Alto). Today Google’s food programs focus on providing healthy, sustainably sourced food to fuel Googlers around the world.

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2000

April

  • We announce the MentalPlex: Google’s ability to read your mind as you visualize the search results you want. Thus begins our annual foray in the Silicon Valley tradition of April 1 hoaxes.

May

  • We win our first Webby Awards: Technical Achievement (voted by judges) and Peoples’ Voice (voted by users).
  • We run a series of doodles featuring a little alien—our first doodle series and the first doodle not associated with any particular event.
  • The first 10 language versions of Google.com are released: French, German, Italian, Swedish, Finnish, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, Norwegian and Danish. Today, search is available in 150+ languages.

July

  • Our first international doodle celebrates Bastille Day in France.

September

  • Google New York starts in a Starbucks on 86th Street with a one-person sales “team.” Today, more than 4,000 Googlers work in our New York office, a former Port Authority building at 111 Eighth Avenue.
  • We start offering search in Chinese, Japanese and Korean—bringing our total number of supported languages to 15.

October

  • Google AdWords launches with 350 customers. The self-service ad program promises online activation with a credit card, keyword targeting and performance feedback.
  • The first doodle by a guest artist, Lorie Loeb, goes live. Since then, many artists have lent their talents to the Google homepage, from Wayne Thiebaud to Christoph Niemann to Eric Carle.

December

  • Google Toolbar is released—a browser plug-in that makes it possible to search without visiting the Google homepage.

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2001

February

  • In our first public acquisition, we acquire Deja.com’s Usenet Discussion Service, an archive of 500 million Usenet discussions dating back to 1995. We add search and browse features and launch it as Google Groups.

March

  • Eric Schmidt is named chairman of the board of directors.

April

  • Swedish Chef becomes a language preference in search. We offer several “joke” languages, including Klingon.

July

  • Google Images launches, initially offering access to 250 million images.

August

  • We open our first international office, in Tokyo, Japan.
  • Eric Schmidt becomes our CEO. Larry and Sergey are named presidents of products and technology, respectively.

December

  • We release our first annual Google Zeitgeist, a visual look at what millions of people searched for over the year just ending. It’s a revealing look at the year that was, from “Harry Potter” to “Osama Bin Laden.” We continue to release Zeitgeist every year.

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2002

February

  • The first Google product for enterprises is released: the Google Search Appliance is a yellow box that businesses can plug into their computer network to enable search capabilities for their own documents.
  • We release a major overhaul for AdWords, including new cost-per-click pricing.

April

  • We release the first set of Google APIs, enabling developers to query more than 2 billion web documents and program in their favorite environment, including Java, Perl and Visual Studio.

May

  • We release Google Labs, which let people try out beta technologies and was the proving ground for many Google features, such as Google Transit, Google Scholar and Google Trends. Nearly 10 years later, we wind down Google Labs in order to prioritize our product efforts.

September

  • Google News launches with 4,000 news sources. Today Google News includes 50,000+ news sources, with 70 regional editions in different languages. All told, Google News and other services send publishers 6 billion clicks per month as of 2012.

October

  • A few months after our first employee in Australia starts selling AdWords from her lounge room, we open our office inSydney—the second office after Japan in APAC. Our first local AdWords client is eBay Australia.

December

  • With the launch of Froogle (which became Google Shopping in 2012), people can search for stuff to buy.

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2003

February

  • We acquire Pyra Labs, the creators of Blogger. Nearly as old as Google itself (Blogger started in 1999), today more than 300 million people visit Blogger every month.

March

  • We announce Google AdSense, a new content-targeted advertising service that enables publishers large and small to access Google’s vast network of advertisers. (The following month, we acquire Applied Semantics, whose technology bolsters the service named AdSense.)

April

  • We launch Google Grants—the nonprofit edition of AdWords, which provides nonprofit organizations with $10,000 per month in in-kind AdWords advertising to promote their iniatives.

October

  • Registration opens for programmers to compete for cash prizes and recognition at the first ever Code Jam. Today, Google Code Jam attracts tens of thousands of contestants each year, and the finals have traveled to Tokyo, Dublin, London and New York City.

December

  • We launch Google Print (now known as Google Books), indexing small excerpts from books to appear in search results. In 2004, the program expands through digital scanning partnerships with libraries. To date, we’ve scanned more than 20 million books.

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2004

January

  • We launch Orkut, in its heyday the most important social network in several countries.

March

  • We move to the new “Googleplex” at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View with 800+ employees.
  • We introduce Google Local, offering relevant neighborhood business listings, maps, and directions. (Eventually, Local is combined with Google Maps.)

April

  • We launch Gmail on April Fools’ Day. At first invite-only, today it boasts more than 425 million users. Fun fact: our internal code name for Gmail was “Caribou,” inspired by a Dilbert cartoon.
  • The Official Google Blog goes live. Today, we offer a wide variety of ways—including Google+ pages and Twitter accounts—for people to get news from Google, in many different languages.

May

  • We announce the first winners of the Google Anita Borg Scholarship, awarded to outstanding women studying computer science. Today these scholarships are open to students in Africa, Asia, Australia, Canada, Europe, India, Middle East, New Zealand, and the United States.

July

  • We acquire Picasa, which helps people organize and display photos online.

August

  • Our Initial Public Offering of 19,605,052 shares of Class A common stock takes place on Wall Street. Opening price: $85 per share.

September

  • Our Hong Kong office is the first Google office to open in the Greater China region.

October

  • We acquire Keyhole, a digital mapping company whose technology will later become Google Earth.
  • Google SMS launches. This service enabled users to send text search queries to GOOGL or 466453 on mobile devices.
  • We formally open our European headquarters in Dublin, Ireland, with 150 multilingual Googlers, a visit from Sergey and Larry, and recognition from the Deputy Prime Minister of Ireland, Mary Harney.
  • We open our new offices in Bangalore and Hyderabad, India. Googlers in India have worked on products ranging from Map Maker to ads to Chrome.

November

  • We launch Google Scholar in beta. This free service helps people search scholarly literature such as peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, preprints, abstracts and technical reports.

December

  • We establish Google.org, dedicated to the idea that technology can help make the world a better place.

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2005

February

  • Google Maps goes live. Just two months later, we add satellite views and directions to the product.

April

  • Google Maps comes to mobile phones in the U.S., offering driving directions and local information to people on the go.
  • Our first Google Maps release in Europe is geared to U.K. users. France, Germany, Italy and Spain follow in 2006. Today, we offer driving directions in 190+ countries around the world.
  • The first video goes up on YouTube (not yet part of Google). Today, 100+ hours of video are uploaded every minute and people watch 6 billion hours of video per month!

May

  • Personalized Homepage (later iGoogle and no longer available as of November 2013) was designed for people to customize their own Google homepage with content modules.

June

  • Google Mobile Web Search is released, specially formulated for viewing search results on mobile phones.
  • We unveil Google Earth, a satellite imagery-based mapping service that lets you take a virtual journey to any location in the world. Google Earth has since been downloaded more than 1 billion times.
  • The Google Maps API is released; developers can embed Google Maps on many kinds of mapping services and sites. Today there are 1 million active websites and apps using the API, reaching 1 billion people every week.

August

  • We launch Google Talk, a downloadable application that lets Gmail users to talk or instant message with friends quickly and easily; Chat comes to Gmail the following year. In 2013, we announce that Talk will be rolled into Hangouts, Google’s new single communications system.

October

  • Googlers volunteer to produce an author event with Malcolm Gladwell in Mountain View. Since then, the Talks at Googleprogram has hosted 1,500+ authors and other thought leaders in 18 offices.

November

  • We release Google Analytics for measuring the impact of websites and marketing campaigns. Analytics is based on Urchin, a company we acquired in March 2005.
  • We announce the opening of our offices in São Paulo and Mexico City—our first in Latin America.
  • The first Doodle 4 Google contest takes place in the United Kingdom. Since then, we’ve run Doodle 4 Google contests in countries across six continents, with more than 1 million doodles submitted by students eager for the chance to see their artwork on the Google homepage.

December

  • Google Transit launches in the Portland, Ore. metro area. Today, Transit has schedules for more than 1 million public transit stops worldwide.
  • Gmail for mobile launches in the United States.

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2006

March

  • Google Finance launches—complete with interactive charts and related headlines from Google News—to help people to find financial information more easily.

April

  • We launch Google Calendar to help you keep track of events, special occasions and appointments, and to share schedules with others.
  • Google Translate launches, offering translations between Arabic and English. Today our machine translation service provides translations between 70+ different languages.

May

  • We release Google Trends, a way to visualize the popularity of searches over time.
  • Gmail launches in Arabic and Hebrew, bringing the number of interfaces up to 40.

June

  • We announce Google Checkout, a fast and easy way to pay for online purchases which paved the way for broader payments with Google Wallet.
  • Picasa Web Albums enables Picasa users to upload and share their photos online.
  • The Oxford English Dictionary adds the word “Google” (as a verb).

August

  • Google Apps for Your Domain is released. This suite of applications, including Gmail and Calendar, is the precursor toGoogle Apps Premier Edition, which launched later in the year and brings cloud computing to businesses. Today, more than 5 million businesses are using Google Apps.

October

  • We launch Apps for Education; our first deployment is to Arizona State University. Today Apps for EDU has more than 25 million users, and is being used by 74 of the top 100 universities.
  • We release web-based applications Docs & Spreadsheets (now called Docs and Sheets). Docs is a reworking of Writely (acquired in March).
  • We announce our acquisition of YouTube.

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2007

January

  • “Fortune” announces its annual list of Best Companies to Work For and Google is #1 (we’ve been on top of the list three other years since). We’re proud we’ve been able to create a company culture where employees are empowered to do cool things that matter.

February

  • This year’s Valentine’s Day doodle causes a stir. Many people think we left out the “l” and linked it to a 17th century poet named Googe; others think it’s homage to a band called My Bloody Valentine (the bassist’s last name is Googe).
  • Many of the 2008 Presidential candidates—including then-Senator Barack Obama and Senator John McCain—visit the Googleplex throughout the campaign.
  • We add traffic information to Google Maps for 30+ cities around the U.S. Today, live traffic data is available in 50+ countries, covering highways, streets and more in 600+ major cities.

March

  • The first “gBikes” appear on campus, giving Googlers an efficient, convenient and healthy way to get to and from meetings. Today around 700 bikes are on campus at any given moment—just one sign of Google’s cycling-friendly culture.

April

May

  • Street View debuts in Google Maps in five U.S. cities: New York, San Francisco, Las Vegas, Miami, and Denver. Today, Street View is available in more than 50 countries.
  • We kick off an effort to help protect people from malicious content on the Internet. Today, approximately 1 billion people useGoogle Safe Browsing, which extends not only to Google’s search results and ads, but also to popular web browsers such as Chrome, Firefox and Safari, on mobile and desktop.
  • We expand the YouTube Partnership Program to include some of the most popular and prolific original content creators from the YouTube community. Today more than 1 million channels earn revenue from the program.
  • We announce new strides taken towards universal search. Now video, news, books, image and local results are all integrated together in one search result.

June

  • We install solar panels on our Mountain View campus—the largest corporate solar panel installation of its kind at the time. Today the solar panels power 30 percent of the buildings they sit on.
  • We unveil a new green initiative aimed at accelerating the adoption of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. We later retire theRechargeIT initiative, though we continue to offer electric vehicles as part of our employee car sharing service.

September

  • AdSense for Mobile is introduced, giving sites optimized for mobile browsers the ability to host the same ads as standard websites.
  • We add a new application for making slide presentations to Google Docs.

November

  • We announce Android—the first open platform for mobile devices—and a collaboration with other companies in the Open Handset Alliance.
  • Renewable Energy Less Than Coal (RE<C) was an initiative designed to create electricity from renewable sources that are cheaper than coal. The program has been retired, but we continue to apply what we learned to other renewable energy projects.

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2008

January

  • The BOLD Internship program launches, providing opportunities to students historically underrepresented in tech. Combined with our other internships, over the years thousands of students have had the chance have an impact at Google, on projects from engineering to sales.

March

  • We complete the acquisition of DoubleClick, a digital marketing company that provides ad management technology for agencies, marketers and publishers.

May

  • We host the first Google I/O, our annual developer conference, in San Francisco. I/O has grown since then; in addition to the thousands of developers who join us in person every year, millions of people tune in via live stream to hear the latest news on products.

June

  • The first GoogleServe—our global week of service—takes place. Every year, Googlers leave their inboxes behind to participate in projects that give back to the community.
  • Google Map Maker launches, enabling people to directly update geographic information in Google Maps and Google Earth—helping ensure that the map accurately reflects the world. Today Map Maker is available in 200+ countries and territories across the globe.

July

  • We provide Street View for the entire 2008 Tour de France route—the first launch of Street View imagery in Europe.
  • Our first downloadable iPhone app, enabling quicker mobile searching, debuts with the launch of the Apple 3G iPhone.

August

  • We launch a site dedicated to the 2008 U.S. elections. In 2012, we take this effort to the next level withGoogle.com/elections, providing news and online tools for elections worldwide.
  • Google Suggest (later called Autocomplete) arrives on Google.com, helping formulate queries, reduce spelling errors and reducing keystrokes.
  • Street View is available in several cities in Japan and Australia—the first time it’s appeared outside of North America or Europe.

September

  • T-Mobile announces the G1, the first phone built on the Android operating system.
  • Google Chrome becomes available for download, one day after a comic book announcing our new browser leaks onto the web. Five years later, Chrome boasts more than 750 million users.

November

  • The updated Google Mobile App for iPhone makes it possible for you to do a Google web search using only your voice.
  • After we discover a correlation between certain search queries and CDC data on flu symptoms, we release Google Flu Trends, an indicator of flu activity around the U.S. as much as two weeks earlier than traditional flu surveillance systems.

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2009

February

  • Our first message on Twitter gets back to binary: I’m 01100110 01100101 01100101 01101100 01101001 01101110 01100111 00100000 01101100 01110101 01100011 01101011 01111001 00001010. (Hint: it’s a button on our homepage.)
  • We launch Voice Search on Android. Android users can start searching by voice with the touch of a button, making mobile web surfing easy and fast.

March

  • We release Google Voice, which improves the way you use your phone, with features like voicemail transcription. In 2013, we announce that Voice will be integrated into Google+ Hangouts.
  • We announce Google Ventures, a venture capital fund aimed at using our resources to support innovation and encourage promising new technology companies. In 2013, Google Ventures added its 200th portfolio company.
  • We launch a beta test of interest-based advertising on partner sites and on YouTube. This kind of tailored advertising lets us show ads more closely related to users’ interests, and it gives advertisers an efficient way to reach those most likely to be interested in their products or services.

April

  • Our April Fools’ Day prank this year is CADIE, our “Cognitive Autoheuristic Distributed-Intelligence Entity” who spends the day taking over various Google products before self-destructing.

May

  • To clear brush and reduce fire hazard in the fields near our Mountain View headquarters, we rent some goats from a local company. They help us trim the grass the low-carbon way.

July

  • We (literally) take the beta label off both the enterprise and consumer versions of Gmail, Google Calendar, Google Docs and Google Talk.
  • We announce that we’re developing Google Chrome OS, an open source, lightweight operating system initially targeted at laptops.

September

  • We introduce the DoubleClick Ad Exchange, a real-time marketplace that helps large online publishers on one side; and ad networks and agency networks on the other, buy and sell display advertising space.
  • On the birthday of the “father of science fiction,” we unveil the truth behind a mysterious series of doodles in tribute to H.G. Wells.

October

  • Google Maps Navigation is a turn-by-turn GPS navigation system with 3D views, voice guidance and live traffic data.

November

  • We release an international series of doodles for the 40th anniversary of “Sesame Street.”

December

  • Just in time for the holidays we roll out Mac and Linux versions of Google Chrome, as well as extensions for Chrome in Windows and Linux (all in beta).

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2010

January

  • We introduce the Nexus One to show what’s possible on Android devices. The Nexus line of devices has since grown and now includes tablets as well as phones.
  • In response to the Haiti earthquake, engineers build Person Finder to connect loved ones in the wake of disasters. We’ve since launched Person Finder for other crises—including the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan—and formed Google Crisis Response, a team that responds to global disasters.
  • After detecting a sophisticated cyberattack from China, we announce we are no longer willing to continue censoring our services on Google.cn, our local domain. Today, users in mainland China can access search via Google.com.hk.

February

  • The first-ever Google Super Bowl ad tells a love story through search terms. This is one of many videos made to celebrate the human side of search.
  • We announce a plan to build and test ultra high-speed broadband networks, delivering Internet speeds up to 100 times faster than what most Americans have access to today. More than 1,000 communities submit proposals in response.

March

  • Bike directions and bike trail data come to Google Maps. Today, there are more than 330,000 miles (530,000 kilometers) of biking trails and paths in Google Maps to help you get around on your two wheels.

April

  • We change our name to Topeka for April Fools’ Day—a tribute to Topeka, Kansas, which changed its name to Google as part of an effort to bring Fiber to that city.
  • We’re the first company to launch a website publishing the number of requests we get from governments to provideinformation about our users or to remove content from Google products. Later in the year, we add visualizations showingdisruptions in visitor traffic to our products, such as a government blocking access or a cable being cut.

May

  • As part of our efforts to accelerate the deployment of renewable energy, we make our first direct investment in a utility-scale renewable energy project.
  • Google TV is built on Android and Chrome and gives you an easy and fast way to navigate to television channels, websites, apps, shows and movies.
  • In celebration of PAC-MAN’s 30th birthday, we release our first-ever playable doodle, complete with all 256 levels and Ms. PAC-MAN.
  • We acquire AdMob, a mobile display advertising company.

July

  • As part of our long-term goal to power our operations with 100% renewable energy, we announce an agreement to purchasethe clean energy from 114 megawatts of wind generation in Iowa.
  • “Life in a Day” is a cinematic experiment to document one day as seen through the eyes of people around the world—created with thousands of submissions from YouTube users.

August

  • Priority Inbox helps you handle information overload in Gmail by automatically sorting your email by importance, using a variety of signals.
  • “The Wilderness Downtown” is a musical experience created by writer/director Chris Milk with the band Arcade Fire and Google, built with Google Chrome in mind using HTML5 and other technologies.

September

  • Google Instant shows you search results as you type so you can quickly get to the information you’re looking for.
  • Three years after we first launched Street View in five U.S. cities, you can explore all seven continents at eye level with the addition of Brazil, Ireland and Antarctica imagery.

October

  • We announce we’ve developed technology for cars that can drive themselves; we think self-driving cars can help prevent traffic accidents, free up people’s time and reduce carbon emissions. Our automated cars have since logged more than 500,000 miles on the road.

December

  • YouTube introduces TrueView, a new kind of ad—after 5 seconds, if an ad doesn’t seem relevant or interesting to you, you can skip it. TrueView is part of our effort to ensure viewers watch ads that are most relevant to them, and advertisers reach the right audience.

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2011

February

  • The Google Art Project lets you virtually tour some of of the world’s best museums and explore high resolution images of tens of thousands of works of art from 40 countries.
  • We introduce an advanced opt-in security feature called 2-step verification to help people keep their Google Accounts secure. 2-step verification is now available in 40 languages and 150+ countries.

March

  • The new +1 button lets you publicly give something a “thumbs up,” helping your friends and contacts find the best stuff online.

April

  • Larry Page takes over as CEO—10 years after he last held the title. Eric Schmidt becomes executive chairman.
  • Charlie Chaplin’s 122nd birthday is the occasion for our first-ever live-action doodle.

May

  • Google Wallet makes it convenient to shop in-store, online or on the go, and helps merchants simplify the checkout experience.
  • Google Offers kicks off in beta in Portland, Ore.
  • We announce the first Chromebooks from partners Samsung and Acer. Chromebooks are designed to be fast, simple, secure and easy to keep updated.

June

July

  • Talented young scientists wow the judges at the inaugural Google Science Fair, an online science competition open to students aged 13-18 from around the world.
  • AdWords Express is a faster and simpler way for small businesses to start advertising online in under five minutes.

August

  • We bring offline access to Gmail, Calendar and Docs for people using Chrome.

September

  • We acquire Zagat to help you find the very best places.

October

  • Android 4.0, a.k.a. Ice Cream Sandwich, is designed to work on both phones and tablets, and to make the power of Android enticing and intuitive.

November

  • We launch Google+ Pages to connect you with the businesses, organizations and other things you care about. We have afew of our own sharing updates about the company.
  • Google Maps now helps you to figure out where you are and get directions when you’re inside a building like an airport or mall.

December

  • Android Market exceeds 10 billion app downloads—with a growth rate of one billion app downloads per month.
  • We open a new office in Paris, a symbol of our commitment to one of Europe’s fastest-growing Internet economies. The new office is also home to the Google Cultural Institute.

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2012

January

  • We join thousands of other sites to encourage users to stand up against two legislative proposals in the U.S. (SOPA and PIPA) which would have censored the Internet and impeded innovation. The next day, the bills are set aside. More than 7 million Internet users sign the petition hosted at google.com/takeaction.

February

  • Chrome launches on Android, so you can take the same simple, fast and secure web browsing experience with you wherever you go, across devices. Three months later we launch Chrome on iOS.

March

  • Android Market becomes Google Play, a digital content store offering apps, games, books, movies, music and more.

April

May

  • Hangouts On Air become available worldwide. Many public figures and organizations have hosted Hangouts to connect directly with the public, including U.S. President Barack Obama, NASA, David Beckham, Taylor Swift and U.N. Secretary-General Ban-Ki Moon.
  • We introduce the Knowledge Graph in Search, which makes it easier for you to discover information about real-world things—landmarks, celebrities, cities, sports teams, movies, works of art and more. This launch is built on our acquisition in 2010 of Metaweb.
  • We acquire Motorola Mobility.
  • Our doodle in honor of Dr. Robert Moog, the inventor of the electronic analog Synthesizer, is an interactive, playable logo that allows you to record, play back and share songs.
  • We expand our Transparency Report with a new section on copyright, providing information on the number of requests we get from copyright owners to remove Google Search results because they allegedly link to infringing content.
  • We transition Google Product Search to Google Shopping to help people research products and connect directly with merchants to make purchases.

June

  • We unveil DoubleClick Digital Marketing, our new platform that enables seamless ad campaign management for agencies and advertisers.
  • We announce Google Now, which brings you the information you need, before you even ask, like what today’s weather will be like, how much traffic to expect on your way to work or your favorite team’s score while they’re playing.
  • We release the first Nexus 7—a powerful 7″ tablet designed to bring Google Play content to life and bring you the best of Google in the palm of your hand. Later in the year, the Nexus family expands to include a 10″ tablet and the Nexus 4 phone.
  • Trekker is a way to capture Street View imagery of beautiful places that are only accessible by foot (like the Grand Canyon or the Galapagos).

July

  • The world sees the Olympics live on YouTube for the first time. Viewers watched a total of 230 million video streams, and our partnership with NBC makes it the most live-streamed Olympics to date.

October

November

  • We begin installing Google Fiber—ultra-high speed Internet access that is up to 100 times faster than today’s average broadband—for our first customers in Kansas City, Kansas and Kansas City Missouri. The next year, we announce Fiber in Austin, Texas and Provo, Utah.

December

  • Lady Ada Lovelace, mathematician and writer known to many people as the world’s first computer programmer, gets adoodle.
  • Google Maps for the iPhone is now available.
  • Psy’s Gangnam Style becomes the most-watched video of all time—the first and only YouTube video to reach 1 billion views.
  • We launch the Global Impact Awards to support entrepreneurial nonprofits using technology to tackle tough human challenges. We later launch country-specific Global Impact Challenges, starting first in the United Kingdom and then in India.
  • YouTube Space LA is a new facility run by the Next Lab and designed to help creators access the tools and the guidance they need to become even more successful on the platform. We later open Spaces in London and Tokyo.

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2013

January

  • We commit to invest $200 million in a wind farm in west Texas. This brings our total clean energy commitments to more than $1 billion, which can generate over 2 GW—enough to power all the public elementary schools in New York, Wyoming and Oregon for a year.

February

  • We introduce enhanced campaigns, which updates AdWords for the multi-screen world.
  • In 50 words, tomorrow’s Glass Explorers tell us what they would do if they had Glass. The first Explorers get Glass later in the year.
  • Our newest laptop—the Chromebook Pixel—is designed from the ground up for power users who have embraced the cloud.

April

  • Get just the information you need right when you need it with the release of Google Now for iPhone and iPad.
  • Plan your digital afterlife with Inactive Account Manager, which enables you to tell us what to do with your data from Google services if your account becomes inactive for any reason.

May

  • A video doodle for graphic designer and filmmaker Saul Bass celebrates his classic film credits and posters.
  • We release imagery of the Earth taken from space over a quarter-century, providing a stunning historical perspective on the changes to the Earth’s surface over time.
  • Google Play Music All Access, a new monthly music subscription service, lets you listen to millions of songs across your devices.
  • We introduce a new Google+ Photos experience that helps your photos look their best, as well as Hangouts, which will be Google’s single communications system, replacing Google Talk, Google+ Hangouts and Messenger.
  • Gmail gets a brand new inbox that helps you see what’s new at a glance and decide which emails you want to read when.

June

  • We unveil our latest Google[x] project: balloon-powered Internet access. We hope Project Loon can become an option for connecting rural, remote and underserved areas, and for crisis response communications.
  • We acquire Waze to help you outsmart traffic.
  • Funded by Google, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory investigates the energy impact of cloud computing. Theirresearch indicates that moving all office workers in the United States to the cloud could reduce the energy used by information technology by up to 87 percent.

July

September

  • Android passes 1 billion device activations—reflecting the work of the entire Android ecosystem and thanks to the enthusiasm of users all around the world.
  • We announce Calico, a new company that will focus on health and well-being, with Arthur D. Levinson as CEO.

October

  • KitKat delivers a smarter, more immersive Android experience to even more people. We also introduce the new Nexus 5.
  • An update to Google+ Photos makes it easier to find, perfect and share your best life moments.

November

  • Street View comes to Venice, bringing you panoramic views of one of the world’s most beautiful cities.

December

  • Compute Engine—which lets developers build and host applications on Google’s infrastructure—becomes generally available.

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2014

January

  • We acquire Nest—a company that reinvents unloved products for the home, like thermostats and smoke alarms.
  • We announce a new Google[x] project focused on using miniaturized electronics in a contact lens to measure glucose levels and help people with diabetes.

February

  • Working with organization Polar Bears International, we collect Street View imagery of the Canadian tundra, giving you an intimate look at polar bears in their natural habitat.
  • Chromebox for meetings brings together Google+ Hangouts and Google Apps to make it simpler for any company to have high-definition video meetings.

April

May

June

  • Made with Code is a new initiative aims to inspire girls to code.
  • At our annual I/O conference, we announce new updates that bring Android to you wherever you are—in your car, on your TV and on your wrist.

July

August

  • Gmail and Calendar now recognize addresses that contain accented or non-Latin characters.

September

October

December

The Biography of Mark Zuckerberg, (facebook boss!)

Image result for mark zuckerberg

In this success story we are going to share Mark Zuckerberg biography, the youngest billionaire on the planet who created Facebook social network that now has 1 billion monthly active users.

Thanks to Facebook people around the world can easily keep in touch with all their friends. Not long ago, society just did not have such opportunity, but now everything has changed. However, Facebook is not limited only to communication and acquaintances. There are numerous interest groups and fan pages that help to rally the people together. This is not counting the fact Facebook is also a huge database of profiles, exceeding the most popular dating sites and chances to find your second half are impressive.

Mark Zuckerberg Childhood Biography

Mark Elliot Zuckerberg was born on May 14, 1984 and grew up in the suburbs of New York, Dobbs Ferry. He was the second of four children and the only son in the educated family. Mark’s father, Edward Zuckerberg, is a dentist and mother, Karen Zuckerberg, is a psychiatrist. His father owned a dental practice next to the family house. Mark and his three sisters, Arielle, Randi and Donna were raised in Dobbs Ferry, New York.

Mark Zuckerberg Biography

Mark got interested in programming yet in elementary school. The fact that the world is divided between programmers and users, Mark found out when he was 10 years old and got his first PC Quantex 486DX on the Intel 486.

From Mark Zuckerberg biography we found out he was taught Atari BASIC Programming by his father and when Mark was about 12, he used Atari BASIC to create a messenger, which he called “ZuckNet”. It made all the computers connected to each other and allowed to transfer messages between the house and dental office. His father installed the messenger on his computer in his dentist office and the receptionist could inform him when a new patient arrived. Mark also enjoyed developing games and communication tools and as he said he was doing it just for fun. His father, Edward Zuckerberg, even hired a computer tutor David Newman who gave his son some private lessons.

Also being at high school, Mark wrote an artificially intelligent media player Synapse for MP3-playlists that carefully studied the preferences of a user and was able to generate playlists ‘guessing’, which tracks user wants to listen to right now. Microsoft and AOL got unusual interest in Synapse media player and wanted to buy it out. However, the young talent rejected the offer of IT-giants and then politely rejected their invitation to cooperate. Just like that, Mark Zuckerberg refused from dozens, maybe even hundreds of thousands of dollars, and work in one of the top IT-corporations.

Soon Mark Zuckerberg studied at the Academy of Phillips Exeter, an exclusive preparatory school in New Hampshire. He showed good results there in science and literature, receiving a degree in classics. He also showed a great talent in fencing and even became the school captain of the fencing team. Yet Mark Zuckerberg stayed fascinated by coding and wanted to work on the development of new software.

In 2002, after graduating Phillips Exeter, Zuckerberg entered Harvard University. By his second year at the Ivy League he had gained a reputation as a software developer on campus. It was then when he wrote a program CourseMatch, which helped students choose their subjects on the basis of lists of courses from other users.

Mark Zuckerberg Biography

FaceMash – A Fun Site for Voting

In 2003, once summer evening when Mark Zuckerberg suffered from insomnia in the Harvard dormitory room, he got an idea to create a site called FaceMash. Mark decided to hack the database of Harvard, where the students uploaded their profile pictures. He quickly wrote a program that randomly selected two pictures of two random female students and put them next to each other, asking “Who is hotter?”, giving the option for voting.

The process was in full swing and site was visited by most of the students in Harvard. When the number of visitors exceeded the limit, the server crashed due to overload. Mark appeared before the committee on computer hacking. Of course nobody told Mark Zuckerberg ‘Well done!’ and he received a disciplinary action, and had noticed that such kind of things cause stormy interest in society. By the way, Harvard has refused to comment on the incident up till now.

The Rising of Facebook

Mark Zuckerberg Biography

About ten months before the Zuckerberg’s FaceMash epic, one of the students of Harvard – Divya Narendra – had already spoken with the idea of creating a social network exclusively for Harvard students, many of whom were suffering from emotional stiffness. And not have ‘aliens’ engaged into the network, Narendra suggested using Harvard email address as the main username.

Divya Narendra’s partners were twins Tyler and Cameron Winklevoss. The father of the Winklevoss twins, Howard Winklevoss, is a successful financial consultant and put in his sons a lot of efforts and money – so the problem with the initial capital for the future network could be solved easily.

In conversation with Mark Narendra said that the project would be called Harvard Connection (later renamed to ConnectU), and its members will be posted to the Internet their photos, personal information and useful links. The tasks of Mark Zuckerberg included programming of the site and creating a special source code, which would allow the system to work as quickly as possible.

Mark Zuckerberg Biography

After a private meeting with Narendra and the Winklevoss twins, Zuckerberg agreed to join in the work, but the potential of his new partners he estimated it skeptically. While working on Harvard Connection he got a fantastic idea about his own social network.

On February 04, 2004 he registered the domain name TheFacebook.com, now known throughout the world as Facebook.com. However, it functioned only within Harvard.

After Zuckerberg and his partner Eduardo Saverin realized that there were already registered 4000 users, they have come to the conclusion that they needed the services of new programmers. One of them was a Mark’s neighbor, Darren Moskowitz, who further opened the Facebook service to students at Columbia University, Stanford, and Yale.

Around the same time after the IPO, Zuckerberg owned 503.6 million shares. And now Zuckerberg controls nearly 60% of the company’s votes, 35% – Eduardo Saverin, and 5% went to newcomer Moskowitz. Another friend of Mark, Chris Hughes, was assigned as the Press attache of Facebook.

Mark Zuckerberg Biography

Some time later, the registration was opened to all students. The main condition was the availability of an email address in .edu zone, which also indicated a person’s belonging to education sector.

It must be said that at first this tactic worked out nicely. The project attracted audience attention of sufficient quality. When a user was trying to sign up he had to fill out a detailed profile, and in addition to the email address in .edu zone it was requested to add a real profile picture. If people used avatars instead of real pictures their profiles were deleted.

Soon Facebook went beyond the education sector, becoming more and more popular. Mark Zuckerberg started looking for investors. The first investments Mark received from one of the founders of PayPal, Peter Thiel, who is well known throughout Silicon Valley. Peter Thiel allocated $500,000 dollars and that amount was sufficient for immediate Facebook purposes. The project began to evolve rapidly. In less than a year after it was founded more than 1 million people joined the social network. For further development of Facebook they needed more investments. Accel Partners invested in Facebook $12.7 million dollars and then Greylock Partners added to this amount $27.5 million dollars.

By 2005, Facebook became accessible for all educational institutions and universities in the USA. Zuckerberg still believed that his project is a social network for students, but the interest of users to Facebook grew exponentially. Then it was decided to make a registration accessible to the public. And after this a Facebook ‘epidemic’ started.

Mark Zuckerberg Biography

The main thing that immediately attracted users in Facebook, is that friends who meet in real life now could communicate with each other online. It was something new.

Facebook audience grew rapidly, but the monetization of the project still remained unclear. Everyone expected that the main instrument should be context advertising. The fact is that every Facebook user fills sufficiently detailed profile, which can be used to show relevant advertisements. Obviously that would open up enough options to advertisers, who may be of interest to their audience. But Facebook continued  just to build number of users. When they got over 50 million users, large companies began to offer Zuckerberg to sale them the project. So, one time even Yahoo! offered $900 million dollars for Facebook. Impressive sum, but it absolutely did not satisfy Mark. Facebook biography and Mark Zuckerberg success story is quite intriguing, isn’t it?

Lawsuits against Facebook

The Facebook project launch was accompanied by series of scandals. Six days later after launching the site senior students brothers Cameron and Tyler Winklevoss and Divya Narendra accused Mark Zuckerberg in stoling their idea. They claimed that in 2003 hired Zuckerberg to make him complete the establishment of the social network HarvardConnection.com. According to their testimonies, Zuckerberg did not provide them the results of his work, but used the original source code to create Facebook.

In the same year, Narendra and the Winklevoss twins launched their own network renamed to ConnectU. And they continued to attack on Mark Zuckerberg, complaining Harvard administration and The Harvard Crimson newspaper. Initially Zuckerberg urged journalists not to publish the investigation: he showed them what supposedly he did for HarvardConnection, and explained that those developments did not have any relation to Facebook. But very inappropriately, another Harvard student – John Thomson – in personal conversations started saying that Zuckerberg stole one of his ideas for Facebook. The newspaper decided to publish the article and it offended Mark Zuckerberg very much.

Mark Zuckerberg Biography

Zuckerberg took revenge on The Harvard Crimson. According to Silicon Alley Insider, in 2004, he breaks the mailboxes of two journalists from The Harvard Crimson, using the newly launched Facebook. He found users who were involved in the newspaper and browsed their logs (i.e. history) of incorrectly entered passwords in Facebook. Zuckerberg’s expectations were met: two employees of the newspaper absentmindedly tried to login Facebook with passwords from their mailboxes. Silicon Alley Insider wrote that Zuckerberg got lucky: he had a chance to read the correspondence about him between the editorial office and HarvardConnection.

The Winklevoss twins and Narendra filed a lawsuit against Mark Zuckerberg, but the court rejected their claim. They were persistent and filed another lawsuit. This time the court examined the code sources to understand whether they were actually stolen. But the truth was still not clear. The examination results were not announced. In 2009, Zuckerberg agreed to pay $45 million ($20 million in cash, and the remaining amount in Facebook shares) ConnectU as part of the court settlement. The case was closed. By that time ConnectU had less than 100,000 users, Facebook boasted about 150 million users.

The Winklevoss twins yet did not calm down and filed a petition in the U.S. Court of Appeals, but they were denied a retrial. According to their lawyer Jerome Falk, the appellate court refused to take a review of the case based only on the parties’ settlement agreement, which states that members of the trial after the signing of the document does not have the right to resume the trial. In counsel’s view, the decision was illegal, as Mark Zuckerberg in a proceeding in 2008 provided false information about the company’s value.

On May 17, 2011 Cameron and Tyler Winklevoss filed another lawsuit against the owner of Facebook Mark Zuckerberg to the U.S. Supreme Court. That was the latest attempt of the brothers to make the court to reconsider the case.

Bill Gates and Facebook

Mark Zuckerberg Biography

In 2007, a major event happened to Facebook. Microsoft acquired 1.6% equity stake in Facebook for an impressive amount of $240 million dollars. On this basis, a number of analysts suggested that the total value of Facebook reaches $15 billion. Quite good results for the company, whose income did not exceed $200 million a year. After the deal Bill Gates created an account in Facebook. He used to spend for several hours a day to communicate through Facebook with everyone, but after a time decided to close his account for some time, because there were too many people willing to chat with him. Physically, he was not able to chat with all of them. However, Gates provided a major PR campaign for Facebook worldwide. This is particularly important for Microsoft, given that it had an exclusive advertising agreement with the social network until 2011.

How Facebook Makes Money

In 2013, the turnover of Facebook, Inc. reached $7.87 billion and net income – $1.5 billion. The growth rates are also impressive: three years turnover has increased six-fold.

Basis earnings of Facebook come from contextual ads on the pages of social network. Growing number of users and the time they spend on the site is converted into advertising revenues. 85% percent of cash-flow that went through the company last year was earned through contextual advertising.

Most of the rest 15% are deductions from purchases made through the Facebook payment system. These are mostly not real, but virtual goods. For example seeds, fruits and vegetables, purchased by fans of the popular game Farmville developed by Zynga.

Mark Zuckerberg Biography

Despite the apparent frivolity, virtual goods is a serious business, and the Facebook report confirms that. The company estimates that in 2010 the global market turnover for virtual goods reached $7 billion, and by 2014 it rose to $15 billion.

At the beginning of January 2013, Facebook Inc. started testing the service of paid private messaging. Facebook charges $1.00 for a private message that you can send to the users who are not in your friend list. And the message goes directly to their Inbox folder, instead of Other one. But Facebook went further and realized that some users are worth more than a $1. If you want to send a message to Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg and get into his inbox, you might have to pay $100 for this exclusive option. This is another very simple way to generate additional revenue.

Acquisition of Instagram, Oculus Rift and WhatsApp

Mark Zuckerberg biography

Mark Zuckerberg is a great strategist and he keeps acquiring companies that continue their operation as independent entities under Facebook’s umbrella.

In April 2012, acquired mobile photo sharing app Instagram for $1 billion in cash and stock. Initially, it was an iOS application developed by Mike Krieger and Kevin Systrom. Now Instagram application is available on Android OS as well.

Mark Zuckerberg Biography

In March 2014, Facebook closed acquisition of Oculus Rift for $2 billion. Oculus Rift is a virtual reality hardware engineered by Oculus VR Company headed by Palmer Freeman Luckey. Facebook paid $400 million in cash plus 23.1m Facebook shares, with a further $300 million in incentives if it hits certain milestones in the future.

In October 2014, Mark Zuckerberg completed purchase of WhatsApp for $22 billion. Facebook paid $4.59 billion in cash and 177,760,669 shares in the company. WhatsApp is an instant messaging application founded by Jan Koum and Brian Acton in 2009.

Mark Zuckerberg Biography

Mark Zuckerberg: TIME’s 2010 Person of the Year

In January 2010, TIME magazine named Facebook founder, CEO and 26-year old billionaire Mark Zuckerberg the Person of the Year 2010.

Lady Gaga, James Cameron and founder of WikiLeaks, Julian Assange, were struggling for this title that year. However, TIME magazine chose his hero. ‘The social network created by Mark connected almost every tenth person on the planet’, – Richard Stengel, TIME editor-in-chief explained their choice. According to him, ‘Today, Facebook is the third largest country in the world that knows about its citizens as much as no government on planet does.’

Mark Zuckerberg Biography

According to TIME, in the past year no one else had such great impact on the world than the current winner. Mark’s popularity is so high that in 2010 David Fincher shot a movie ‘The Social Network’ in which the main role of Facebook founder was brilliantly played by Jesse Eisenberg. Previously, TIME’s ‘persons of the year’ became the United States presidents Bill Clinton and Barack Obama.

In 2010, Forbes magazine admitted Mark Zuckerberg as the youngest billionaire in its list to the state of $4 billion.

In the rating of the 400 richest people in the United States, published by Forbes magazine in 2014, Zuckerberg took 11th place with a net worth of $34 billion.

Mark Zuckerberg’s Lifestyle

Currently Zuckerberg lives in the Palo Alto in a $7 million estate that features 5 bedrooms a saltwater pool, and over 5,000 square feet of property.

Mark Zuckerberg Biography

On May 19, 2012 Mark Zuckerberg married his longtime girlfriend Priscilla Chan in Palo Alto, California and finally they happy live together.

We hope you have enjoyed reading Mark Zuckerberg biography and breathtaking success story of Facebook and it has inspired you to new discoveries.

Pls drop your comments!…………..

source: www.astrumpeople.com

Biography of Jack Dorsey(twitter’s founder)

Jack Dorsey is an American businessman best known as the founder of the social networking site Twitter.
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JACK 2

His popular Quotes

“Everything we do is about getting people to be more open, more creative, more courageous.”

Synopsis

Born in St. Louis, Missouri, on November 19, 1976, Jack Dorsey became involved in web development as a college student, founding the Twitter social networking site in 2006. Since that time, Dorsey has served as CEO, chairman of the board, and executive chairman of Twitter. He also launched the successful online payment platform Square in 2010.

Early Life

Inventor of Twitter Jack Dorsey was born in St. Louis, Missouri, on November 19, 1976. Growing up in St. Louis, Dorsey became interested in computers and communications at an early age and began programming while still a student at Bishop DuBourg High School. He was fascinated by the technological challenge of coordinating taxi drivers, delivery vans and other fleets of vehicles that needed to remain in constant, real-time communication with one another. When he was 15, Dorsey wrote dispatch software that is still used by some taxicab companies today.

Creation of Twitter

After a brief stint at the Missouri University of Science and Technology, Dorsey transferred to New York University. In the tradition of computer science entrepreneurs such as Bill Gates, Steve Jobs and Mark Zuckerberg, he dropped out of college before receiving his degree. Instead, Dorsey moved to Oakland, California, and in 2000 started a company offering his dispatch software through the Web. Shortly after starting his company, Dorsey came up with the idea for a site that would combine the broad reach of dispatch software with the ease of instant messaging.

Dorsey approached a now-defunct Silicon Valley company called Odeo to pitch the concept. “He came to us with this idea: ‘What if you could share your status with all your friends really easily, so they know what you’re doing?'” said Biz Stone, a former Odeo executive. Dorsey, Stone and Odeo co-founder Evan Williams started a new company, called Obvious, which later evolved into Twitter. Within two weeks, Dorsey had built a simple site where users could instantly post short messages of 140 characters or less, known in Twitter parlance as “tweets.”

On March 21, 2006, Jack Dorsey posted the world’s first tweet: “just setting up my twttr.” Dorsey was named the company’s chief executive officer. He removed his nose ring in an attempt to look the part of a mature Silicon Valley executive, though he kept his boyish, mop-like haircut and abstract, forearm-length tattoo whose shape represented, among other things, the human clavicle bone. Co-founder Evan Williams replaced Dorsey as Twitter’s CEO in October 2008, with Dorsey staying on as company chairman.

Twitter Success

Twitter was initially derided by some as a tool for the shallow and self-centered to broadcast the minutiae of their lives to the universe. Late-night comedy host Conan O’Brien even featured a segment called “Twitter Tracker” that mocked users of the service. In its early days, the site also suffered from frequent service outages. But as celebrities and CEOs alike began tweeting, Twitter was no longer the brunt of so many jokes. Suddenly the head of the “microblogging” movement, Twitter became a powerful platform for U.S. Presidential candidates Barack Obama and John McCain in 2008, as a method for updating their supporters while on the campaign trail.

Twitter vaulted to international prominence after the June 2009 presidential elections in Iran, when thousands of opposition supporters took to the streets to protest the claimed victory of incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. When the government blocked text messaging and satellite feeds of foreign news coverage, Iranian Twitter users flooded the site with live updates. A U.S. State Department official even emailed Dorsey to request that Twitter delay its scheduled maintenance so that protesters could keep tweeting. “It appears Twitter is playing an important role at a crucial time in Iran. Could you keep it going?” said a State Department spokesman, describing the call. Twitter complied.

Beyond Twitter

In 2010, Twitter had more than 105 million users who together tweeted some 55 million times a day. Dorsey, however, had set his sights on other projects. He became an investor in the social networking company Foursquare and launched a new venture, Square, which allows people to receive credit card payments through a tiny device plugged in to their mobile phone or computer. Twitter may have already revolutionized the way that people communicate, but Dorsey isn’t done yet. “In terms of technology, we’re going to see a better and more immediate experience around the everyday things we do in life,” Dorsey said.

Billionaire Businessman

In November 2013, Dorsey saw his personal fortune grow tremendously thanks to Twitter’s initial public offering. The company’s stock had a starting share price of $26, but the price quickly rose to $45 during its first day of trading. Within hours, the value of Dorsey’s approximately 23.4 million shares made him a billionaire. He already began discussing the possibility of an IPO for his other company, Square, in 2014

ACHIEVEMENTS

Tatooed entrepreneur Jack Dorsey is running two tech heavyweights for now: Twitter and Square. At Twitter, cofounder Dorsey was appointed interim CEO in June after the departure of Dick Costolo. Dorsey is also heading payments company Square, which he cofounded in 2009; Square confidentially filed for an initial public offering in July under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups (JOBS) Act. A self-taught computer coder, Dorsey dropped out of New York University in 1999, became a certified masseur and dabbled in fashion design before gravitating fully to tech. In 2006, with Ev Williams, Biz Stone and Noah Glass, he cofounded Twitter and was the company’s chief executive until 2008, when he shifted into the chairman’s seat. Dorsey, whose father worked for a company that developed mass spectrometers and mother was a homemaker, derives the bulk of his fortune from his roughly 3.5% stake in Twitter. Square, which makes hardware and software that enable smartphones to process credit card payments, was valued at $6 billion in late 2014 following a fundraising round that included Singapore’s sovereign wealth fund and Goldman Sachs. The company is expected to go public in the fall of 2015.

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